The karyotype is the study of the chromosomal endowment that each human cell has: 22 pairs of chromosomes (autosomes) and an additional one in which the sexual characterization is expressed (XY in the case of men and XX in that of women) .
The karyotype allows determining chromosomal abnormalities, either in the number or in the genetic structure of the chromosomes of both members of the couple, which, in the event of pregnancy, could cause certain congenital alterations or hereditary diseases in the future child.
It is usually done through a blood test, since chromosomes are present in all cells of the body.
This study is crucial in assisted reproduction, given that couples with fertility disorders have a greater probability in relation to the general population of having chromosomal structural alterations.
These alterations are often responsible for repeated abortions, ovarian failure and, in the case of men, severe alterations in seminal quality. Likewise, a chromosomal abnormality can induce a recurrent failure in the implantation of the embryos after In Vitro fertilization.