A gene is a piece of DNA that carries all the information necessary to code a protein and its variables. Genes are found in pairs, that is, they are duplicated.
When a gene has mutations (a specific change) it may not work in the correct way or simply not work at all, resulting in many cases as the cause of a disease.
Hereditary characteristics from grandparents to parents and from parents to offspring are also transmitted through the DNA of genes, such as eye color, height, predisposition to develop diseases such as diabetes or mutations associated with diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
Chromosomes are the structures that contain all of our genes
They are found in the nucleus of each cell
Each cell in our body contains 46 chromosomes, or what is the same, 23 pairs of chromosomes
23 chromosomes are inherited from the mother and 23 chromosomes from the father
When there is a missing chromosome in the pair or there is an extra one, we find aneuploidy, which leads to health problems.
Chromosome normality means having 23 pairs of chromosomes:
One less chromosome or an extra one leads to health and development problems: